But fix your gaze on the valley, because we near the river of blood, in which those who injure others by violence are boiled.’
Dante's Inferno Cantos XIV-XVI - YouTube
Brunetto Latini was a Florentine Guelph, renowned for both his writing and his politics he taught at the university where Dante studied and helped foster Dante&rsquo s career. Although Latini provided him in life with kindness and counsel, the poet Dante rather ungratefully places him in Hell, and implicitly accuses his teacher of homosexuality or pedophilia, situating him among the Sodomites.
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When Dante responds "In weeping and in grieving, accursed spirit, may you long remain," 96 55 98 Virgil blesses him with words used to describe Christ himself ( Luke 66:77 ). Literally, this reflects the fact that souls in Hell are eternally fixed in the state they have chosen, but allegorically, it reflects Dante's beginning awareness of his own sin. 96 56 98
Cavalcante pensa che il figlio sia morto (in realtà all'epoca del viaggio immaginario , aprile 6855, egli era ancora vivo, sebbene morì alcuni mesi dopo, nell'agosto 6855) e visto che Dante esita nella risposta, ricade supino nel sepolcro e sparisce dalla scena per la disperazione.
Virgil moved on, and then, as we were leaving, said to me: ‘Why are you so bewildered?’ And I satisfied his question. The sage exhorted me: ‘Let your mind retain what you have heard of your fate, and note this,’ and he raised his finger, ‘When you stand before the sweet rays of that lady , whose bright eyes see everything, you will learn the journey of your life through her.’
Proprio quando Dante risponde garbatamente a Farinata ricordandogli che lui e i suoi alleati furono esiliati, compare improvvisamente sulla scena una figura nuova, quella di Cavalcante dei Cavalcanti padre di Guido Cavalcanti , uno dei rappresentanti di maggior spicco del Dolce stil novo e amico intimo di Dante. Egli è guelfo, quindi Dante ci tiene a non generalizzare tutti i ghibellini come eretici, come facevano gli inquisitori senza scrupoli in tempo di persecuzione politica.
Il canto inizia ricollegandosi alla fine del XIII : Dante, impietosito dalle parole del concittadino anonimo suicida trasformato in arbusto e straziato dalla lotta tra uno scialacquatore e i cani infernali avvenuta tra i suoi rami, poiché " carità del loco natio mi strinse ", raduna i rami spezzati, come richiesto nel canto precedente, e li mette alla base della pianta "fioca" cioè muta, oppure esausta.
The Fourth Circle is guarded by a figure Dante names as Pluto : this is Plutus , the deity of wealth in classical mythology. Although the two are often conflated, he is a distinct figure from Pluto (Dis), the classical ruler of the underworld. 96 nb 7 98 At the start of Canto VII, he menaces Virgil and Dante with the cryptic phrase Papé Satàn, papé Satàn aleppe , but Virgil protects Dante from him.
Forse la più coerente è quella che indichi Beatrice, poiché in gioventù sia il poeta che il suo amico Guido erano rimasti affascinati dall'amor che pregnava il dolce stilnovo, ma la morte aveva consacrato Beatrice ad un severo progetto di salvezza per Dante, e l'inattingibile oggetto del desiderio era divenuto strumento operativo della grazia. In questo modo gli itinerari intellettuali dei due amici si erano divaricati irreparabilmente. L'orizzonte speculativo del pensiero di Guido era rimasto improntato all'animismo fisico di Epicuro e all'" Aristotelismo radicale " degli averroisti per i quali l'amore, figlio dei sensi, era fonte di impulsi irrazionali e agonia del desiderio.
Dante and Virgil approach the Central Well, at the bottom of which lies the Ninth and final Circle of Hell. The classical and biblical Giants – who perhaps symbolize pride and other spiritual flaws lying behind acts of treachery  – stand perpetual guard inside the well-pit, their legs embedded in the banks of the Ninth Circle while their upper halves rise above the rim and can be visible from the Malebolge.  Dante initially mistakes them for great towers of a city. Among the Giants, Virgil identifies Nimrod (who tried to build the Tower of Babel he shouts out the unintelligible Raphèl mai amècche zabì almi ) Ephialtes (who with his brother Otus tried to storm Olympus during the Gigantomachy he has his arms chained up) and Briareus (who Dante claimed to have challenged the gods) and Tityos and Typhon , who insulted Jupiter. Also here is Antaeus , who did not join in the rebellion against the Olympian gods and therefore is not chained. At Virgil's persuasion, Antaeus takes the poets in his large palm and lowers them gently to the final level of Hell.
Then, as if conscious of guilt, I said: ‘Will you therefore, tell that fallen one, now, that his son is still joined to the living. And if I was silent before in reply, let him know it was because my thoughts were already entangled in that error you have resolved for me.’
Vanni hurls an obscenity at God and the serpents swarm over him. The centaur Cacus arrives to punish the wretch he has a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders and snakes covering his equine back. (In Roman mythology, Cacus, the monstrous, fire-breathing son of Vulcan , was killed by Hercules for raiding the hero's cattle in Aeneid VIII, 698–767, Virgil did not describe him as a centaur). Dante then meets five noble thieves of Florence and observes their various transformations. Agnello Brunelleschi, in human form, is merged with the six-legged serpent that is Cianfa Donati. A figure named Buoso (perhaps either Buoso degli Abati or Buoso Donati, the latter of whom is mentioned in Inf. ) first appears as a man, but exchanges forms with Francesco de' Cavalcanti, who bites Buoso in the form of a four-footed serpent. Puccio Sciancato remains unchanged for the time being.
Dante's Hell is structurally based on the ideas of Aristotle , but with "certain Christian symbolisms, exceptions, and misconstructions of Aristotle's text",  and a further supplement from Cicero’s De Officiis.  Virgil reminds Dante (the character) of “Those pages where the Ethics tells of three/Conditions contrary to Heaven’s will and rule/Incontinence, vice, and brute bestiality”.  Cicero for his part had divided sins between Violence and Fraud.  By conflating Cicero’s violence with Aristotle’s bestiality, and his fraud with malice or vice, Dante the poet obtained three major categories of sin, as symbolized by the three beasts that Dante encounters in Canto I: these are Incontinence , Violence/Bestiality, and Fraud/Malice.   Sinners punished for incontinence (also known as wantonness) – the lustful, the gluttonous, the hoarders and wasters, and the wrathful and sullen – all demonstrated weakness in controlling their appetites, desires, and natural urges according to Aristotle's Ethics , incontinence is less condemnable than malice or bestiality, and therefore these sinners are located in four circles of Upper Hell (Circles 7–5). These sinners endure lesser torments than do those consigned to Lower Hell, located within the walls of the City of Dis, for committing acts of violence and fraud – the latter of which involves, as Dorothy L. Sayers writes, "abuse of the specifically human faculty of reason".  The deeper levels are organized into one circle for violence (Circle 7) and two circles for fraud (Circles 8 and 9). As a Christian, Dante adds Circle 6 (Limbo) to Upper Hell and Circle 6 (Heresy) to Lower Hell, making 9 Circles in total incorporating the Vestibule of the Futile, this leads to Hell containing 65 main divisions.  This "9+6=65" structure is also found within the Purgatorio and Paradiso. Lower Hell is further subdivided: Circle 7 (Violence) is divided into three rings, Circle 8 (Fraud) is divided into ten bolge , and Circle 9 (Treachery) is divided into four regions. Thus, Hell contains, in total, 79 divisions.
The Chamber of Hell , 6556
Il canto decimo dell' Inferno di Dante Alighieri si svolge nel sesto cerchio , la città di Dite , dove sono puniti gli eretici siamo all'alba del 9 aprile 6855 ( Sabato Santo ), o secondo altri commentatori del 76 marzo 6855.
Inoltre esiste un livello simbolico nella Divina Commedia: il viaggio di Dante rappresenta il cammino di ciascun individuo verso la redenzione, quindi si può dire che esista anche un "quarto" Dante che agisce nel poema a rappresentazione dell'intera umanità cristiana.
And he to us: ‘You spirits, who have come to view the dishonourable mangling that has torn my leaves from me, gather them round the foot of this sad tree. I was of Florence, that city, which changed Mars, its patron, for St John the Baptist , because of which that god, through his powers, will always make it sorrowful. Were it not that some fragments of his statue remain where Ponte Vecchio crosses the Arno, those citizens, who rebuilt it on the ashes Attila left, would have worked in vain. I made a gibbet for myself, from my own roofbeam.’